Julien Florkin Business Technology Self-Improvement

Explainable AI: 8 Important Aspect to Understand What Happens Behind the Scenes

Explainable AI
Explore the groundbreaking world of Explainable AI! Dive into human-machine collaboration, ethical considerations, future prospects, and success stories.
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I. Introduction

In an age where technology is intricately woven into the fabric of our lives, Artificial Intelligence (AI) stands out as one of the most fascinating and enigmatic inventions. It’s a realm that continues to amaze and perplex, being at the heart of innovations that have transformed everything from healthcare to transportation.

But as the prevalence of AI continues to grow, so does a nagging question: How does it all work? This isn’t just idle curiosity; it’s a question that pertains to trust, ethics, and control. When AI systems make decisions that affect our lives, don’t we have the right to know how and why those decisions were made?

That’s where Explainable AI (XAI) steps into the spotlight. It’s like a backstage pass into the world of AI, offering a view into the complex mechanics and algorithms that power these intelligent systems. Unlike traditional ‘Black-Box’ models that keep their secrets tightly guarded, Explainable AI aims to make technology not just something we use, but something we can understand, relate to, and trust.

Explainable AI

In this whirlwind tour of Explainable AI, we’ll pull back the curtain on this emerging field. We’ll explore what it means, why it’s essential, and how it’s being applied across various industries. Whether you’re a tech enthusiast or a curious bystander, this insightful journey into the world of Explainable AI promises to be eye-opening.

So sit back, relax, and let’s embark on a journey through the wonderful world of AI transparency, where no question is too big, and no detail is too small. It’s time to unravel the mysteries and embrace the future with open arms and open minds. Welcome to Explainable AI!

II. Background on Artificial Intelligence

Explainable AI

A. Overview of AI and Machine Learning Technologies

In the grand theatre of technology, Artificial Intelligence (AI) plays the leading role. It’s a broad term that captures various techniques and approaches, enabling machines to mimic human intelligence. Sounds like science fiction, doesn’t it? But it’s as real as your morning coffee!

At the heart of AI is something called Machine Learning. This is where computers don’t just follow instructions; they learn and adapt, much like humans. Imagine teaching your computer to recognize a cat by showing it thousands of cat pictures. That’s Machine Learning in action, and it’s transforming everything from facial recognition to personalized marketing.

B. Introduction to Black-Box Models

Now, here’s where things get a bit murky. Many AI systems are like ‘Black-Box’ models. Picture a magician who performs an incredible trick but refuses to reveal how it’s done. Frustrating, right? Black-Box models work wonders, making predictions and decisions, but they keep their methods a mystery.

These models can be complex and arcane, full of mathematical wizardry that even experts struggle to understand. For those relying on these systems, it can feel like trusting a stranger with your deepest secrets. This lack of transparency has raised concerns and eyebrows alike, leading to calls for something more open and understandable.

C. The Rise of Demand for Transparency in AI – “Machine Learning Transparency”

The demand for transparency in AI, often termed “Machine Learning Transparency,” isn’t just a fleeting trend; it’s a growing movement. It’s about bridging the gap between man and machine, making AI something we can not only use but comprehend.

Imagine being at the doctor’s office, and the doctor prescribes a treatment based on an AI system. Wouldn’t you want to know how that decision was made? Whether it’s healthcare, finance, or law, people are starting to ask, “Why?” And rightly so!

This growing appetite for transparency is fostering collaboration, innovation, and regulation, all aimed at making AI a more transparent and accountable part of our lives. It’s not just about peeking behind the curtain; it’s about ensuring that AI serves us in a way that’s ethical, fair, and aligned with our values.

III. Explainable AI Models and Techniques

A. Definition of Explainable AI

Explainable AI (XAI) is like the friendly translator for the complex language of AI. It’s about making those head-scratching algorithms and models something we can relate to, understand, and trust. XAI is not just for tech wizards; it’s for everyday folks who want to know how the digital magic happens.

B. Methods and Approaches to Create Explainable Models

Explainable AI

Diving into the world of Explainable AI, we encounter some interesting methods and approaches that make AI more like an open book and less like a cryptic puzzle. Here’s a closer look:

  1. LIME (Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations):
    • What’s It Like? Think of LIME as a friendly guide that takes you on a tour of a complex city (the model). It breaks down the big picture into manageable chunks, explaining one street at a time.
    • How Does It Work? LIME creates simple, understandable explanations for individual predictions. It’s like shining a flashlight on a specific part of the model and explaining it in plain English.
  2. SHAP (Shapley Additive Explanations):
    • What’s It Like? Imagine SHAP as a fair distributor, making sure every part of the model gets its due credit. It’s like dividing a pie, ensuring everyone gets an even slice.
    • How Does It Work? SHAP assigns a value to each feature, indicating its contribution to the prediction. It’s a democratic approach that values every part of the model equally.
  3. Decision Trees and Rule-Based Models:
    • What’s It Like? Think of these as flowcharts that lead you through a series of decisions. It’s a roadmap that shows you every turn and stop.
    • How Does It Work? By breaking down decisions into a series of rules or branches, these models make the decision-making process transparent and easy to follow.

C. Benefits of Using Explainable AI in Various Industries

The magic of Explainable AI isn’t confined to tech labs; it’s finding its way into all kinds of industries. From healthcare professionals understanding patient diagnoses to bankers assessing loan applications, Explainable AI is like the friendly assistant that not only does the job but also explains how it’s done.

Imagine your car’s GPS not only guiding you but also explaining why it chose a particular route. That’s Explainable AI in a nutshell. It adds a layer of understanding, accountability, and trust, bridging the gap between human intuition and machine precision.

By cracking open the black box of AI, Explainable AI is making technology a more approachable, ethical, and collaborative part of our lives. It’s like having a conversation with your gadgets, where both sides understand each other. Now that’s a future worth exploring!

IV. Case Studies: Explainable AI in Action

Explainable AI

The beauty of Explainable AI is in its real-world applications. It’s not just a theoretical concept; it’s like a hardworking teammate that’s finding its place across various fields. Let’s explore some fascinating case studies where Explainable AI is rolling up its sleeves and making a tangible difference.

A. Healthcare: Personalized Treatment through Explainable AI

What’s Happening? In the healthcare sector, Explainable AI is like a virtual medical consultant. It’s helping doctors understand and personalize treatments.

How’s It Done? By using XAI techniques, AI models explain why a particular diagnosis or treatment is recommended, shedding light on the underlying factors. Imagine a machine that not only tells you what medicine to take but also explains why, based on your unique symptoms and medical history.

Real-Life Example: Hospitals are using Explainable AI to predict patient readmissions, showcasing the reasons behind the predictions. It’s like having a health detective that uncovers hidden patterns and clues, making medical decisions more transparent and tailored.

B. Finance: Risk Assessment and Management

Explainable AI

What’s Happening? In the world of finance, Explainable AI is like a savvy financial advisor. It’s assisting banks and financial institutions in assessing risks and managing investments.

How’s It Done? XAI models break down credit risk assessments, explaining the why and how behind lending decisions. Imagine applying for a loan, and the bank not only tells you whether you qualify but also walks you through the reasons behind the decision.

Real-Life Example: Some banks have adopted XAI to demystify credit scoring, making the process more transparent and accountable. It’s like peeling back the layers of financial bureaucracy to reveal a clear and comprehensible process.

C. Automotive: Autonomous Driving and Safety

What’s Happening? On the roads, Explainable AI is taking the wheel as the co-pilot of autonomous vehicles.

How’s It Done? Self-driving cars powered by XAI not only navigate the roads but also explain their decisions. Imagine your self-driving car chatting with you about why it chose a specific route or made a particular maneuver.

Real-Life Example: Automotive companies are developing XAI systems that communicate with passengers, explaining real-time driving decisions. It’s like having a conversation with your car, turning a ride into an interactive experience.

D. Legal: Fair Decision Making in Judiciary

What’s Happening? In legal corridors, Explainable AI is becoming a symbol of fair judgment and objectivity.

How’s It Done? XAI models are employed to analyze legal cases, providing insights and explanations for legal decisions. Imagine a judge’s gavel that resonates with the sound of reason and clarity.

Real-Life Example: Legal departments are using Explainable AI to interpret regulations and precedents, ensuring that decisions are not only accurate but also well-explained. It’s like having the wisdom of a seasoned lawyer distilled into a transparent and accessible form.

V. Real Life Applications of Explainable AI (XAI)

Explainable AI

1. Medical Diagnosis: Identifying Rare Diseases at Mount Sinai Hospital

Background: Mount Sinai Hospital in New York implemented an Explainable AI system to assist in diagnosing rare genetic diseases.

The Challenge: Traditional diagnostic tools struggled to identify and understand rare diseases, leading to delayed or incorrect treatments.

The Solution: Researchers at Mount Sinai created DeepGestalt, an XAI-powered tool that analyzed facial features from photographs to identify possible genetic disorders.

Success Story: DeepGestalt’s explainable models provided insights into how specific facial features led to particular diagnoses. It assisted medical professionals in understanding the genetic patterns of rare diseases, resulting in faster and more accurate diagnoses. It’s like having a medical Sherlock Holmes, making sense of the most baffling cases!

2. Finance: Credit Scoring Transparency at JPMorgan Chase

Background: JPMorgan Chase sought to make its credit scoring process more transparent and understandable for clients.

The Challenge: Customers often found credit decisions to be a black box, leading to confusion and dissatisfaction.

The Solution: JPMorgan implemented Explainable AI models that not only determined creditworthiness but also explained the contributing factors.

Success Story: This transparent approach demystified credit scoring, enhancing customer trust and satisfaction. It’s like having an open conversation about money matters, turning the confusing world of credit into a dialogue built on clarity and trust.

3. Automotive Industry: Audi’s Autonomous Driving Solutions

Background: Audi explored the use of Explainable AI in enhancing the autonomous driving experience.

The Challenge: Users were often uneasy with self-driving cars, not understanding how or why the vehicles made certain decisions.

The Solution: Audi implemented XAI to provide real-time explanations of the car’s driving decisions, communicated through an interactive dashboard.

Success Story: This interactive approach turned drives into educational experiences, increasing user trust and acceptance of autonomous vehicles. It’s like having a driving instructor on board, guiding and explaining every turn of the wheel!

4. Legal Sector: Fair Algorithms in European Courts

Background: European courts sought to employ AI in legal decisions while ensuring fairness and transparency.

The Challenge: Traditional AI models could inadvertently introduce biases, leading to unfair or unjust legal outcomes.

The Solution: Researchers developed Explainable AI models that transparently revealed how conclusions were reached, enabling human oversight.

Success Story: This approach helped maintain fairness in legal decisions, holding AI accountable and ensuring that justice wasn’t just done, but seen to be done. It’s like having a transparent legal compass, pointing the way to true justice!

5. Retail Industry: Personalizing Customer Experience at Walmart

Background: Walmart wanted to enhance customer experience through personalized recommendations.

The Challenge: Shoppers were often bombarded with irrelevant suggestions, leading to a frustrating shopping experience.

The Solution: Walmart employed Explainable AI to provide personalized recommendations and explain why particular products were suggested.

Success Story: This personalized and transparent approach transformed shopping into a tailored experience, increasing customer satisfaction and sales. It’s like having a personal shopper who knows your tastes and explains why certain products match your needs!

6. Education: Adaptive Learning with Carnegie Mellon University

Explainable AI

Background: Carnegie Mellon University researched ways to personalize education using XAI.

The Challenge: Creating a learning experience tailored to individual student needs was complex and resource-intensive.

The Solution: The university implemented XAI-powered adaptive learning systems that not only adjusted to individual learning styles but also explained how and why adjustments were made.

Success Story: This research led to personalized and transparent educational paths, improving student engagement and understanding. It’s like having a tutor who doesn’t just answer questions but explains how to find the answers yourself!

7. Environmental Conservation: Wildlife Protection with Conservation Metrics

Background: Conservation Metrics, an environmental firm, aimed to use AI to monitor and protect wildlife populations.

The Challenge: Traditional monitoring methods were labor-intensive and less effective in understanding animal behavior.

The Solution: Using Explainable AI, the firm developed models that could identify animal species from audio recordings and explain the characteristics used in identification.

Success Story: This approach allowed conservationists to understand animal behavior better, enhancing their protection efforts. It’s like giving a voice to nature, turning the rustling leaves and chirping birds into a symphony of insights!

8. Agriculture: Precision Farming with John Deere

Background: John Deere sought to enhance farming practices through AI, making them more efficient and sustainable.

The Challenge: Farmers needed to understand why certain farming recommendations were made to trust and adopt them.

The Solution: John Deere implemented Explainable AI systems that provided real-time insights into soil health, crop conditions, and optimal farming practices, along with clear explanations.

Success Story: This transparency turned farming into a science guided by insights, enhancing productivity and sustainability. It’s like having a seasoned farmer walking the fields with you, sharing wisdom and insights every step of the way!

9. Energy Sector: Smart Grid Management with Siemens

Background: Siemens aimed to improve energy grid management using AI, optimizing efficiency and reducing waste.

The Challenge: Energy grid operators needed clear understanding and control over automated decisions to adopt AI solutions.

The Solution: Siemens utilized XAI to create intelligent energy management systems that not only optimized grid performance but also explained the reasoning behind decisions.

Success Story: The result was a more resilient and efficient energy grid, with human operators in the loop, understanding and guiding the AI’s decisions. It’s like turning the complex web of energy distribution into a well-conducted orchestra, harmonizing technology with human expertise!

10. Public Safety: Crime Prediction and Prevention in Los Angeles

Background: The Los Angeles Police Department explored using AI to predict and prevent crime, aiming to make neighborhoods safer.

The Challenge: Implementing AI in such a sensitive area required transparency and community trust.

The Solution: The LAPD used Explainable AI to create predictive models that not only forecasted crime hotspots but also explained the underlying factors contributing to those predictions.

Success Story: This approach allowed law enforcement to target resources effectively while maintaining transparency and community trust. It’s like having a future-telling crystal ball, guided by reason and ethics, turning the battle against crime into a collaborative community effort!

These success stories underscore the transformative power of Explainable AI across different sectors. By shining a light on how decisions are made, XAI is fostering trust, transparency, and collaboration between humans and technology. It’s a thrilling chapter in our technological journey, where mysteries are unraveled, and innovations are humanized. It’s not just about intelligent machines; it’s about machines that explain, understand, and connect!

VI. Challenges and Ethical Considerations

Explainable AI

In the flourishing field of Explainable AI, it’s not all smooth sailing. There are certain hurdles to overcome and ethical waters to navigate. Let’s dive into the complexities of these challenges:

A. Technical Challenges

  1. Balancing Accuracy with Explainability: Crafting AI models that are both explainable and highly accurate is like walking a tightrope. The more complex a model, the harder it can be to explain. Striking this balance can feel like trying to hit a moving target.
  2. Lack of Standardization: With no one-size-fits-all approach to explainability, developing universally accepted standards is as elusive as catching lightning in a bottle.
  3. Computational Costs: Explainable models can be resource-intensive. They may require more computing power and time, turning the quest for efficiency into a double-edged sword.

B. Ethical Challenges

Bias in AI: Split-screen showcasing a woman of Hispanic descent and its AI interpretation.
A visual representation of how AI perceives faces from different ethnicities.
  1. Bias and Fairness: If the data used is biased, even an explainable model can perpetuate injustices. It’s like building a house on a faulty foundation; no matter how solid the structure seems, problems lurk beneath the surface.
  2. Privacy Concerns: Explaining decisions might require detailed personal information. This opens up a can of worms regarding privacy and consent, as people might be uncomfortable with machines knowing and revealing too much about them.
  3. Accessibility and Understandability: Making explanations accessible to non-experts is like translating a foreign language; what’s clear to one person might be gibberish to another. Tailoring explanations to diverse audiences is a complex, multifaceted challenge.

C. Societal and Regulatory Challenges

  1. Legal Compliance: Laws like the European Union’s GDPR include provisions for explainability, but interpreting and applying these laws can be as tricky as a riddle wrapped in an enigma.
  2. Public Trust and Adoption: Winning public trust for AI systems is no walk in the park. If people don’t understand or trust the technology, they might shun it, turning a promising innovation into a white elephant.
  3. Potential Misuse: Like any powerful tool, XAI could be misused. Unscrupulous actors might manipulate explanations to deceive or mislead, turning a force for transparency into a smoke and mirrors game.

D. Industry-Specific Challenges

  1. Healthcare: In healthcare, wrong explanations can have life-or-death consequences. Ensuring that explanations are accurate and reliable is not just a technical challenge; it’s a moral imperative.
  2. Finance: In the financial world, transparency must be balanced with confidentiality. It’s a tightrope walk where one misstep could lead to revealing sensitive information or breaching regulatory requirements.
  3. Automotive: In autonomous driving, explanations must be real-time and robust. A delayed or incorrect explanation isn’t just an academic error; it’s a potential road hazard.

Explainable AI’s challenges and ethical considerations form a multifaceted puzzle. Solving it requires not just technical prowess but also ethical insight, legal acumen, and a touch of philosophical wisdom. It’s a thrilling but daunting adventure, one that invites us to explore not just the frontiers of technology, but also the boundaries of understanding, responsibility, and humanity itself. The journey of making machines explainable is more than a technological quest; it’s a reflection of our values, our integrity, and our shared vision for a future where innovation and ethics walk hand in hand.

VII. Future Prospects of Explainable AI

Explainable AI

The dawn of Explainable AI marks a significant shift in the world of technology. We’re on the brink of an era where machines don’t just think; they explain their thoughts. It’s like opening a new chapter in a gripping novel where every turn of the page reveals unexpected twists and intriguing possibilities. Let’s journey into the future prospects of XAI:

A. Integrating Human and Machine Intelligence

  1. Collaborative Decision Making: Imagine a world where humans and AI collaborate seamlessly. Doctors, engineers, and educators guided by AI’s insights, yet grounded in human values. It’s not a pipe dream; it’s a future where XAI plays the role of a wise counselor.
  2. Personalized User Experiences: From shopping to learning, XAI can turn digital experiences into personalized journeys, making you feel like the technology truly “gets” you.
  3. Enhancing Trust in Automation: XAI can take the fear out of automation, turning self-driving cars and automated homes into trusted companions rather than mysterious black boxes.

B. Democratizing Access to AI

Explainable AI
  1. Empowering Non-Experts: Who says AI is just for tech wizards? With XAI, even non-experts can leverage AI’s power, turning this elite technology into everyone’s helpful neighbor.
  2. Education and Skill Development: Imagine learning from an AI tutor who doesn’t just solve problems but explains them in a way you understand. It’s like having Einstein, Shakespeare, and Marie Curie rolled into one digital mentor!

C. Ethical AI and Responsible Innovation

  1. Promoting Fairness and Equality: XAI can be a torchbearer for justice, ensuring that biases are not just detected but explained and eradicated. It’s like having a digital guardian of ethics, watching over our technological landscape.
  2. Ensuring Privacy and Security: The future of XAI includes safeguarding our secrets while sharing its wisdom. It’s a delicate balance, but one that XAI is uniquely positioned to strike.

D. Pioneering Research and Scientific Discovery

  1. Revolutionizing Scientific Research: From decoding the human genome to understanding the cosmos, XAI can be the key that unlocks the mysteries of our universe. It’s like having a digital Galileo, gazing through a telescope that peers into the very fabric of existence.
  2. Accelerating Drug Discovery: In the fight against diseases, XAI can be a powerful ally, not just finding potential cures but explaining how and why they might work.

E. Regulatory Compliance and Standardization

  1. Bridging the Regulatory Gap: The future of XAI includes harmonizing with laws and regulations, turning legal hurdles into collaborative pathways.
  2. Setting Global Standards: Imagine a world where XAI’s principles are universally accepted and standardized. It’s like speaking a common technological language that resonates across borders and cultures.

The future prospects of Explainable AI are like a kaleidoscope, rich and ever-changing, filled with opportunities, challenges, and the promise of a more human-centric technology. It’s not just about smarter machines; it’s about wiser, more empathetic, and transparent technology. The road ahead is filled with twists and turns, but one thing’s for sure: the journey of XAI is a thrilling adventure, an exploration of the very essence of intelligence, ethics, and humanity’s relationship with the digital realm. Hold on tight; the future of Explainable AI promises to be an exhilarating ride!

VIII. Conclusion: The Symphony of Explainable AI

Explainable AI

The world of Explainable AI is not just a technical marvel; it’s a symphony that resonates with the melodies of human intelligence, ethics, innovation, collaboration, and understanding. It’s a field that is as complex as it is captivating, as challenging as it is promising.

A. A New Paradigm in Human-Machine Interaction

Explainable AI represents a seismic shift in how we interact with technology. It’s like turning a monologue into a dialogue, where machines not only compute but communicate, not only perform but explain. It’s a new frontier where AI becomes not just a tool but a partner, a collaborator that speaks our language and shares our values.

B. Ethical and Social Reverberations

The ethical considerations and challenges of XAI are more than mere footnotes; they are central themes that echo throughout its development. They remind us that technology is not an isolated entity but an integral part of our social fabric. Like the ripples in a pond, the choices we make in XAI reach far and wide, touching the shores of justice, privacy, fairness, and trust.

C. Unlocking Future Possibilities

The future prospects of Explainable AI are not just bright; they are dazzling. They paint a picture of a world enriched by technology that’s not distant or cold but intimate and insightful. It’s like glimpsing into a future where technology becomes a reflection of our humanity, a digital ally that understands, empowers, and inspires us.

D. The Unfinished Symphony

Yet, the story of Explainable AI is an unfinished symphony. It’s a journey filled with twists and turns, crescendos and pauses. The challenges are real, the questions profound, and the answers often elusive. It’s a composition that invites us all to contribute, to explore, to question, and to innovate.

E. The Universal Call to Action

The narrative of Explainable AI is a call to action, a beckoning to scientists, policymakers, educators, industry leaders, and everyday individuals. It’s an invitation to join a shared endeavor, to weave a tapestry where technology and humanity intertwine in harmonious coexistence. It’s not a solitary pursuit but a collective adventure, guided by wisdom, empathy, creativity, and the shared dream of a future where machines don’t just think; they understand, explain, and enrich our lives.

In the final analysis, Explainable AI is more than a chapter in the book of technology; it’s a saga, a living testament to human ingenuity and ethical foresight. It’s a mirror that reflects our aspirations, our dilemmas, our strengths, and our shared destiny. As we stand on the threshold of this exciting era, we are not merely observers; we are composers, conductors, and performers in the grand symphony of Explainable AI. The baton is in our hands, the stage is set, and the future awaits our cue. Let the music begin!


Key ConceptsDescription
Explainable AI (XAI)XAI is a branch of AI that focuses on making the decision-making processes of AI systems transparent and understandable to humans, fostering trust and collaboration.
Importance of TransparencyThe need for transparency in AI systems to build trust, ensure ethical use, and comply with regulations, especially in critical areas like healthcare, finance, and law.
AI Models and TechniquesDiscusses various methods to create explainable AI models, such as LIME and SHAP, which help in breaking down complex AI decisions into understandable explanations.
Case Studies in Different IndustriesExamines real-world applications of XAI in sectors like healthcare, finance, and automotive, highlighting how XAI aids in personalized treatment, risk assessment, and autonomous driving.
Challenges and Ethical ConsiderationsAddresses the technical, ethical, societal, and regulatory challenges in implementing XAI, including maintaining a balance between accuracy and explainability, ensuring fairness, and managing privacy concerns.
Future Prospects of XAIExplores the potential future developments in XAI, including integrating human and machine intelligence, democratizing access to AI, promoting ethical AI practices, and regulatory compliance and standardization in XAI applications.


What is Explainable AI (XAI)?

Explainable AI is a branch of AI that provides insights into how AI models make decisions, fostering transparency and trust.

Why is XAI important?

XAI is vital for transparency, building trust, compliance with regulations, and helping users understand AI decisions.

Can all AI models be made explainable?

Not all AI models can be fully explainable. Some complex models may offer only partial insights into their decision-making.

Is XAI less accurate than traditional AI?

XAI aims to balance explainability with accuracy. Sometimes complexity may be reduced for better understanding, affecting accuracy.

How does XAI help in healthcare?

In healthcare, XAI provides understandable insights into diagnoses, treatments, and predictions, enhancing patient trust.

Does XAI eliminate AI bias?

XAI helps identify and understand bias but doesn’t automatically eliminate it. Human oversight and adjustment are often required.

Are there standard methods for XAI?

There’s no one-size-fits-all in XAI. Different models and domains may require unique techniques and approaches for explanation.

What are the ethical considerations in XAI?

Ethical considerations in XAI include fairness, bias, privacy, accessibility of explanations, and the potential misuse of technology.

Can XAI be used in finance and banking?

Yes, XAI is used in finance for risk assessment, fraud detection, and compliance, offering transparency in algorithmic decisions.

Is XAI a recent development?

XAI has gained prominence recently, but the roots date back to early AI research. Recent advancements have fueled its growth.

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